% Highlighting in a formula
% Author: Stefan Kottwitz
% https://www.packtpub.com/hardware-and-creative/latex-cookbook
\documentclass{article}
%%%<
\usepackage{verbatim}
%%%>
\begin{comment}
:Title: Highlighting in a formula
:Tags: Mathematics;Graphics;TikZ;Chapter10
:Author: Stefan Kottwitz
:Slug: highlight-formula
In a complex formula or equation, it can be useful to emphasize
a specific part. We can achieve this, for example, through
highlighting by color or by framing. This is especially useful
in presentations, where we could change the highlighted area
from frame to frame while explaining.
We will take the challenge to work on more than simple basic math.
So we can verify that the method works in arbitrary situations.
So our original material will be amsmath matrices. We will
illustrate a matrix transposition by highlighting sub matrices
and drawing arrows.
We will use TikZ for this. Such a big graphics package may
seem to be a bit heavy for such a purpose at first. But it
provides us with consistent styles and allows us to do nearly
anything graphically.
Note, because of TikZ positioning using markers in the .aux
file, you need to compile at least two times to get the
positioning correct.
The code, and more, is explained step by step in the LaTeX Cookbook,
Chapter 10, Advanced Mathematics, Highlighting in a formula.
\end{comment}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{fit}
\newcommand{\overlay}[2][]{\tikz[overlay,
remember picture, #1]{#2}}
\tikzset{
highlighted/.style = { draw, thick, rectangle,
rounded corners, inner sep = 0pt,
fill = red!15, fill opacity = 0.5
}
}
\newcommand{\highlight}[1]{%
\overlay{
\node [fit = (left.north west) (right.south east),
highlighted] (#1) {}; }
}
\newcommand{\flag}[2]{\overlay[baseline=(#1.base)]
{\node (#1) {$#2$};}}
\begin{document}
\[
M = \begin{pmatrix}
\flag{left}{1} & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 \\
6 & 7 & 8 & 9 & 10 \\
11 & \flag{before}{12} & \flag{right}{13} & 14 & 15 \\
16 & 17 & 18 & 19 & 20
\end{pmatrix}
\highlight{N}
\qquad
M^T = \begin{pmatrix}
\flag{left}{1} & 6 & 11 & 16 \\
2 & 7 & \flag{after}{12} & 17 \\
3 & 8 & \flag{right}{13} & 18 \\
4 & 9 & 14 & 19 \\
5 & 10 & 15 & 20
\end{pmatrix}
\highlight{NT}
\]
\overlay{
\draw[->, thick, red, dotted] (before) -- (after);
\draw[->, thick, red, dashed] (N) -- (NT)
node [pos=0.68, above] {Transpose};
\node[above of = N ] { $N$ };
\node[above of = NT] { $N^T$ };
}
\end{document}